The Gemsbok, also known as South African Oryx, is an antelope species native to Southern Africa. They are characterized by their large size, with a body length of approximately 150-200 centimetres and a shoulder height of about 110 to 130 centimetres.

They weigh around 100-200 kilograms, making them the largest species within the Oryx genus. Both males and females possess long, straight horns, with those of males being larger, reaching lengths up to about 120 centimetres.

Their body is covered in grey-brown fur, with white fur on the face, abdomen, and lower limbs. Black fur is present on the central part of the face, around the eyes and mouth, the throat, the sides of the body between the eyes and limbs, the shins, and the tail.

Gemsboks inhabit dry grasslands and desert regions, being crepuscular in activity. During the hotter parts of the day, they seek refuge in shaded areas. They are herbivores, primarily feeding on grass and leaves, and can resort to digging up plant roots from depths of up to 1 meter when conditions are harsh. They are found in South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana.

Breeding occurs annually between December and March, marked by intense mate competition among males, often resulting in aggressive confrontations using their sharp horns to secure mating opportunities. The gestation period for females lasts approximately 9-10 months, usually resulting in the birth of one calf, occasionally twins. Calves are born between September and January and can join group activities after 3-6 weeks.

The lactation lasts about 3-4 months, and calves become independent at around 5 months old. Females reach sexual maturity at around 2 years old, while males do so at around 5. Gemsboks have a lifespan of 18-22 years.

They live in herds ranging from 6 to 40 individuals, with an average of 14, although records exist of herds with over 300 individuals. Herds are led by a dominant adult male, accompanied by several females and their offspring, with a territory spanning approximately 25 square kilometres. Adult males may leave the herd to live solitary lives.

Like other species within the Oryx genus, Gemsboks are highly adapted to arid environments. They can endure prolonged periods without water, and their physiology allows them to conserve water efficiently. They can withstand body temperatures rising from 35.7°C to 45°C, which would be fatal to most other mammals, reducing the temperature gradient between their bodies and the environment, thus minimizing heat absorption.

Their keen senses of sight and hearing, ability to run swiftly even in desert conditions, and formidable horns make them relatively free from natural predators, with only a unique population of greyish lions found in the Kalahari Desert posing a significant threat to their survival.

According to conservation assessments, given their wide distribution, stable population trends, and lack of significant threats, Gemsboks are classified as a species of least concern.